The converse domain of a relation R is the class of things y for which there exists at least one x such that xRy. The field of a relation is the logical sum of the domain and the converse domain. … The relation-number of a dyadic relation may then be defined as the class of relations similar to it — cf.
Then, What does P mean in philosophy? A property [or proposition] P is a [metaphysically] sufficient condition for a property [or proposition] Q, just in case P implies Q–that is, P à Q. Thus, for example, being a father is a sufficient condition for being male, because Father à Male.
What does Cogito mean?
1 : the philosophical principle that one’s existence is demonstrated by the fact that one thinks. 2 : the intellectual processes of the self or ego.
Moreover, What comes to your mind when you hear the word philosophy? Answer: Thoughts, possibilities, plans, theories constructed to explore obscurities. Philosophy is a way to connect the known in ways to better understand and (maybe) find a path to solutions. The syllables as sensible expressions forming a “unity” of meaning, in this case, “love of wisdom.”
What philosophy means?
Quite literally, the term “philosophy” means, “love of wisdom.” In a broad sense, philosophy is an activity people undertake when they seek to understand fundamental truths about themselves, the world in which they live, and their relationships to the world and to each other.
What does P stand for in logic?
P :⇔ Q means P is defined to be logically equivalent to Q.
What does P mean in logic?
Suppose we have two propositions, p and q. … The propositions are equal or logically equivalent if they always have the same truth value. That is, p and q are logically equivalent if p is true whenever q is true, and vice versa, and if p is false whenever q is false, and vice versa.
Why cogito ergo sum is wrong?
The main problems with the cogito as described by others have been: Acknowledging certainty of ones own existence on the basis of thinking, since doubting is a form of thought, it’s questionable whether we can infer anything else from it.
What Cogito ergo sum means?
Cogito, ergo sum, (Latin: “I think, therefore I am) dictum coined by the French philosopher René Descartes in his Discourse on Method (1637) as a first step in demonstrating the attainability of certain knowledge.
What did Descartes mean by I think therefore I am?
A statement by the seventeenth-century French philosopher René Descartes. “I think; therefore I am” was the end of the search Descartes conducted for a statement that could not be doubted. He found that he could not doubt that he himself existed, as he was the one doing the doubting in the first place.
What is your philosophy in life?
1. My philosophy on life is that you should live while you are alive and you should give others that same privilege. We shouldn’t judge people for the choices they make, because we all make bad decisions. You should do what you want with your life, as long as it makes you happy and causes no harm to others.
What are the important requirements in doing philosophy?
Students must take at least one course in each of three areas: Contemporary Metaphysics and Epistemology [M&E], Contemporary Value Theory [V], and History [H]. In addition at least one of the electives must be a tutorial.
What comes to your mind when you first heard the word mandala?
The meaning of the word mandala in Sanskrit is circle. … The mandala also represents spiritual journey within the individual viewer. So the first level is understanding the unity in cosmos and secondly each individual must find their own place within it.
Who is the father of philosophy?
Masters of Greek Thought: Plato, Socrates, and Aristotle
Socrates is known as the “Father of Western Philosophy. Socrates taught Plato philosophy: not only how to seek wisdom, but also its importance.
Why is philosophy difficult?
Philosophy is Hard Because of Intangibility
The subject matter of philosophy, as far as we are concerned, revolves around something intangible. … Philosophy requires us to not only deal with something ostensibly intangible, but also to refine, clarify, and use proper language for that intangible thing.
What are the 3 branches of philosophy?
Explain and differentiate three main areas of philosophy: ethics, epistemology and metaphysics.
What does R mean in logic?
A logical vector is a vector that only contains TRUE and FALSE values. In R, true values are designated with TRUE, and false values with FALSE. When you index a vector with a logical vector, R will return values of the vector for which the indexing vector is TRUE.
What is the logic symbol for but?
2 Using Logic Symbols. When translating from English sentences into logical form, “but” generally means the same as “and”, and the phrase “neither A nor B” is translated as “not A and not B”.
What does a slash mean in logic?
The vertical line, also called the vertical slash or upright slash ( | ), is used in mathematical notation in place of the expression “such that” or “it is true that.” This symbol is commonly encountered in statements involving logic and sets.
What is P and q in truth table?
They are used to determine the truth or falsity of propositional statements by listing all possible outcomes of the truth-values for the included propositions. … Given two propositions, p and q, “p and q” forms a conjunction. The conjunction “p and q” is only true if both p and q are true.
What is the truth value of P ∨ q?
The disjunction of p and q, denoted by p ∨ q, is the proposition “p or q.” The truth value of p ∨ q is false if both p and q are false. Otherwise, it is true.
Is Cogito ergo sum true?
Cogito, ergo sum is a philosophical statement that was made in Latin by René Descartes, usually translated into English as “I think, therefore I am“. The phrase originally appeared in French as je pense, donc je suis in his Discourse on the Method, so as to reach a wider audience than Latin would have allowed.
What does Je pense donc je suis?
Cogito ergo sum (French: “Je pense donc je suis”; English: “I think, therefore I am”) is a philosophical Latin statement proposed by René Descartes. The simple meaning of the phrase is that someone wondering whether or not he or she exists is, in and of itself, proof that something, an “I”, exists to do the thinking.
What is the problem of the Cartesian circle?
The cartesian circle is an error in reasoning, that has made Descartes’ argument circular. Descartes is guilty of circular reasoning due to the fact that a premise of his argument is included in the conclusion of his argument because the rule of truth is contingent upon God’s existence.